Indoxyl sulfate

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Indoxyl sulfate
2D structure for Indoxyl sulfate
Chemical Name
Chemical Formula C8H7NO4S
CAS Number 487-60-5
Chemical Information HMDB00682
Biochemical Taxonomy

  • Indoles and Indole Derivatives

Functional Taxonomy Not Available
Nutritional Taxonomy Not Available
Metabolic Pathways Not Available
Biofluid Location

  • Blood
  • Urine

Tissue Location

  • muscle
  • kidneys

Normal Biofluid Concentrations

  • Blood: 14.0 +/- 4.2 uM
  • Urine: 14.0 +/- 5.6 umol/mmol creatinine
  • Urine: >0.658 umol/mmol creatinine

Normal Tissue Concentrations Not Available
Diseases / Conditions Related to Nutrition Not Available
Other (Monogenic Disorders) Not Available
Abnormal Biofluid Concentrations Not Available
Abnormal Tissue Concentrations Not Available
Physiological Processes Not Available
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Contents

Introduction

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Indoxyl sulfate is a dietary protein metabolite, and also the metabolite of the common amino acid tryptophan. Indoxyl sulfate is a circulating uremic toxin stimulating glomerular sclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Indoxyl sulfate is one of the well known substances of a group of protein-bound uremic retention solutes. Indoxyl sulfate increases the rate of progression of renal failure. In plasma, indoxyl sulfate is a protein-bound uremic solute that induces endothelial dysfunction by inhibiting endothelial proliferation and migration in vitro. Some studies suggest that indoxyl sulfate is also involved in oxidative stress. In hemodialyzed patients, serum levels of indoxyl sulfate are associated with levels of pentosidine, a marker of carbonyl and oxidative stress; in vitro, indoxyl sulfate increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in tubular cells, and increases NAD(P)H oxidase activity in endothelial cells. Indoxyl sulfate impairs osteoblst function and induces abnormalities of bone turnover. Indoxyl sulfate strongly decreases the levels of glutathione, one of the most active antioxidant systems of the cell. (PMID: 10681668, 14681860, 17471003, 17403109)

Biological Function

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Catabolism

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Diseases / Conditions Related to Nutrition

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Other (Monogenic) Disorders

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Nutritional Information

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Drivers for biological variation

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Vulnerable groups

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